Singamangaraja And Sultan Ibrahimsyah

Sultan Ibrahimsyah and Sisingamangaraja

Many Toba Batak traditions linked a principal of sacred descent with the coastal kingdoms they remembered – Aceh and Barus. The latter was long recognised as a crucial port for Toba Batak, and therefore some ritual tribute was to be expected.

Joustra was struck by the surprisingly uniform set of traditions about the Barus link with Bakkara and the Singamangaraja line, [M. Joustra, Batak-Spiegel (Leiden: van Doesburgh, 1910), pp. 25-26; Rita Kipp, Dissociated Identities (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993), pp. 215-17; Simon Rae, Breath Becomes the Wind: Old and New in Karo Religion (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1994), pp. 63-4] let’s present it here in the form of the Barus Hilir chronicle edited by Jane Drakard.

This describes the journey of the founder of the Muslim dynasty of Barus Hilir, Sultan Ibrahim, through the Batak territories prior to establishing his kingdom on the coast. First in Silindung, and then at the Singamangaraja’s sacred place of Bakkara, and finally in the Pasaribu territory, the local chiefs pleaded with him to stay and become their king.

At Bakkara he urged the Bataks to become Muslim, because then they would be one people (bangsa) with him and he could stay as king. He therefore ordered to build a mosque for his place to live a life and moved on, but not before fathering a child by a local woman, who became the first Singamangaraja. Singamangaraja resided in the mosque which happened to be the first mosque built in Bakkara in the beginning of 16th century.

In each place agreements were sworn to by both sides, establishing the long-term relationship between upland Batak producers on one hand and coastal Malay traders on the other. These included establishing the ‘four penghulu’ or Raja Berempat or Raja Na Opat of Silindung as a supra-village institution linked to the Barus trade.[Jane Drakard, A Malay Frontier: Unity and Duality in a Sumatran Kingdom (Ithaca: Cornell University]

Since Barus and other ports on the west coast were themselves frequently under Aceh suzerainty, it is not surprising that Aceh also figured in Batak memory. Its ritual preeminence over the Singamangaraja line was acknowledged in various ways in the better known nineteenth century, including the Singamangaraja’s seal and flag, both of which appear modelled on those of the Aceh Sultan (see fig. 1). This link, mythologised in the mysterious Batak progenitor-figure Raja Uti who disappeared to Aceh, may go back to the sixteenth or seventeenth century links.

For Parlindungan, however, and the Batak manuscripts of the ‘Arsip Bakkara’ he claims as a source, there was another powerful connection with Aceh in the late 18th century. He claims that these documents reveal a treaty of friendship between the otherwise unknown
Singamangaraja IX and Sultan Alauddin Muhammad Syah, known to have ruled Aceh uneasily from 1781 to 1795.

The treaty purportedly agreed that Singkil was Acehnese, the Uti Kanan (Simpang Kanan?) area Batak, and Barus a neutral zone. But the Acehnese cannon which sealed the deal caused such havoc among some elephants at Bakkara that Singamangaraja IX was killed by one of them. [39 Parlindungan, Tuanku Rao, pp. 486-7]

As so often with Parlindungan’s fanciful stories, there seems to be something of substance in this. In the 1780s, the Singkil area was developed for pepper-cultivation, and the limits of Acehnese control became an urgent concern. Acehnese raided the British outstation of Tapanuli (Sibolga) in 1786, and the British responded by attacking some Acehnese forts.

This was indeed a time, in other words, when Acehnese would have sought to lock Batak suppliers and traders into their networks rather than the British ones.

Let us throw in a further fanciful vignette, if only to further undermine what remains of the idea of Batak “isolation” during the long 18th century. In 1858 a Frenchman or Eurasian called De Molac told a Pondicherry newspaper that in the last quarter of the 18th century “his family settled in the most savage part of Sumatra, established magnificent agricultural establishments there, acquired great influence among the natives and succeeded in reforming their customs”.

The head of the family “had recently been elected chief of the confederation of Bataks, a Malay people whose lands border Dutch possessions and the kingdom of Aceh.” While no doubt largely invented, this story is sufficiently consistent with the supernatural inferences drawn about 19th century visitors to the Batak highlands, including Burton and Ward, Van der Tuuk and Modigliani, that we should not be surprised if such a pattern began earlier.

Maritim Kuno   

Stempel Sisingamangaraja XII   
Si Penjajah Belanda   
Sejarah Mossak   
Ilmi Thifan dan Tuanku Rao   
Krachtologi dan Tuanku Rao   

Kalender Batak   

Studi Kultur Berpikir Batak  

Bugis dan Peradaban Batak  
Perang Batak   
Diaspora Batak Kuno  
Filsafat Ekonomi Batak  
Studi Politik Batak  

Sejarah Politik Batak Abad 17-19 M  
Batak Dan Tanah Tuhan  
Studi Peta Maritim Batak  
Parmalim, Tasawuf dan Penjajahan   
Akal-akalan Pemekaran (Tapanuli??)   

Pengusaha Hitam dan Pemekaran   

S.Q. Marpaung   

Ahmad Hosen Hutagalung  
Kamaluddin Lubis  
Syamsuddin Pasaribu   
Zulpan Efensi Pasaribu   
Jefry Simanjuntak   

Rosnaely Lumbantobing   
Hotbonar Sinaga   
Fachruddin Sarumpaet  
Syamsul Arifin Nababan  
Khalifah Effendy Sitorus   

Burhanuddin Napitupulu   
Zulkarnaen Lubis   
Prof. Dr. S.F. Marbun   
Dr. Ibrahim Sitompul   
Patuan Nagari   

SAE Nababan   
Sisingamangaraja XII   
Yusuf Lubis   
Amir Pasaribu   
Biografi 100 Tokoh Batak   

Usman Efendy Capah   
Lembaga Kebudayaan Pakpak   
Billy Marbun   
Sardan Marbun   
Binsar Marbun   

Abdul Wahab Situmeang   
BN Marbun   
Halak Batak Naik Haji   
Arif Marbun   
Rico Marbun   

J.A. MArbun   
Hamdan Simbolon (HIMMSI)   
Syamsu Rizal Panggabean   
Syawal Gultom Mpd   
Prof. Dr. Abdul Muin Sibuea   

Abdul Hamid Marpaung   
Armijn Pane   
Lafran Pane   
Prof. Dr. Agus Salim Sitompul   
Haji Dur Berutu   

Zulkarnanen Damanik   
Zagartua Ritonga   
Ja Endar Muda   
Abdul Wahab Sinambela: Ketua IPAMSU 2005   

H AN Sihite: Ulama Humbahas   
Mahadi Sinambela: Sinambela Pertama Jadi Menteri   
Bomer Pasaribu: Menteri Dari Pasaribu   
Baharuddin Aritonang   
H. Ali Jabbar Napitupulu   

Fanin Nurlita Br Nainggolan   
Abdul Hakim Siagian   
Arifin Nainggolan   
Badiuzzaman Surbakti   
Efendy Naibaho   

Rahmad P Hasibuan   
Mutawalli Ginting   
Akmal Samosir   
Timbas Tarigan   
Tosim Gurning   

Syahlul Umur Situmeang   
Chairullah Tambunan   
Parluhutan Siregar   
Dahrun Hutagaol   
Amir Hamzah Samosir   

Chairul Tanjung   
Irsan Tanjung   
Akbar Tanjung   
Feisal Tanjung   
Hariman Siregar   

Syamsir Siregar   
Arifin Siregar: Si Gubernur BI   
Bismar Siregar   
Annisa Pohan   
Drs. M. Sehat Simbolon: Kyai Humbahas   

Anwar Nasution   
Aulia Pohan   
Malim Sultoni Simbolon: Tokoh Sufi Humbahas   
K.H. Zainul Arifin Pohan: Sang Wakil Perdana Menteri   
Burhanuddin Harahap: Sang Perdana Menteri Batak, Pengasas Anti Korupsi   

Zulkifli Lubis: Tokoh Anti Korupsi dan Pendiri Intelijen   
Syeikh Ibrahim Sitompul   
Abdul Wahab Harahap   
Syeikh Ali Akbar Marbun: Tokoh Humbahas   

Legenda Dairi  
Sitti Djaoerah  
Kitab Si Raja Batak  

Rasul Batak  
Ompu Sabongan Mangolat  
Guru Mangarissan  
Mpu Bada  
Gondang Sabangunan  
Si Sorik  


Batak Kuliner  

Naga Padoha  
Atlas Cheng Ho  
Forum Batak  
Diktat Kedokteran Batak  
Atlas Kuno Ala Batak  

Teknologi Kertas  
Teori Evolusi Ala Batak  
Geografi Batak Kuno  


Arkeologi penyabungan  
Riwayat Raja-raja Mandailing  

Adam Malik  
Biografi Tokoh  
Identitas Mandailing  
Gallery Foto Lama  
Dinasti Pane  

Koin Tarumon  
Kesultanan Tarumon  
Teka-teki Sembiring  


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